Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2017;23,2:83-95
Direction of change in the somatic development in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes
children and adolescents, somatic development, anthropometric parameters, diabetes type 1
Introduction. Disorders of somatic development in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes can lead to unstable course of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining good metabolic control. Aim. Evaluation of somatic development in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in different age categories. Material and methods. Agroup of 97 girls and 90 boys with type 1 diabetes was examined. Children were divided into three age groups: girls with mean age of 9.1; 12.9; 16.2 years and boys with mean age of 7.6; 11.8; 16.2 years. In all subjects accurate anthropometric measurements and nutritional status assessment were conducted. Somatic traits and indices were expressed in terms of standard deviations of age and sex-specific Polish growth references. Results. Body measurements in girls at the age of 9.1 years and boys at the age of 7.6 years did not differ significantly from the healthy population. Girls aged 12.9 years had significantly increased widths shoulder (p=0,003)) and greater body circumferences: waist (p=0,001), arm (p=0,0008) and hips (p=0,001). The boys aged 11.8 years have significantly larger greater trunk length (p=0,04) and upper limbs length (p=0,01). The oldest girls, at the age of 16.2 years excessive body weight (p=0,00001) also significantly increased circumferences of waist and hips (p=0,000001) were observed. Boys aged 16.2 years also showed significantly increased body circumferences (p=0,0001) which was particularly evident for boys with greater body height. Body mass index BMI in girls pointed to the overweight (1.50 SDS) while in boys it was normal (-0.05 SDS). The youngest girls, the duration of the disease was 2.9 +/- 0.6 years, in the older group 5.2 +/- 0.6 years and the oldest 6.9 +/- 0.6 years. The boys, the duration of illness was 1.9 +/- 0.6 years; 2.6 +/- 0.5 years; 4.8 +/- 0.7 years. The mean HbA 1c in girls was 7.1; 7.7; and 8.4%, while boys 7.4; 7.4 and 7.6%. Conclusions. Changes in body build in patients with diabetes type 1 are associated with chronological age, duration of disease and metabolic control. It has been observed that the increase of weight and waist circumference concern girls. Patients with overweight and obesity represent a risk of early development of complications and require special care.
Article published in polish language